Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Innate immunity in tuberculosis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Innate immunity in tuberculosis - Essay Example of the body, and patients would just waste away with no effective intervention; however, to date, this infectious disease can be successfully treated with antibiotics (Schiffman, 2008). Brill et al., (2001) reported that tuberculosis remains to be the major health problem worldwide and because of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis becomes more significant in the years to come in regions where there is an endemic case of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogen (Brill et al., 2001). Todar (2008) stated that a human immune system is composed of two major subdivisions, namely: (1) Innate or non-specific immune system, and (2) adaptive or specific immune system. The primary or the first line of defence mechanism against invading organism is known as the innate or non – specific immune system (Todar, 2008). This contains cellular and humoral components by which the protective functions are carried out (Todar, 2008). Junqueira - Kipnis et al (2003) noted that with M. tuberculosis, the innate and adaptive immune systems contributes to the defense of the host. Van Crevel et al (2002) noted that the outcome of the infection depends greatly on the relationship between M. tuberculosis and the human host. Both the innate and adaptive defense mechanism is involved with respect to the host. Hence, mechanisms to circumvent and antagonise protective immunity have been developed by M. tuberculosis. The component of the innate immune response are formed by phagocytosis and subsequent IL -12 secretion that are initiated in the absence of prior antigen exposure (Raja, 2004). Natural resistance - associated macrophage protein, neutrophils, natural killer cells, and many others are considered as the component of innate immunity. Raja added that the first line of defense in the innate immunity of M. tuberculosis is played by the plasma lysozyme and other enzymes. Van Crevel et al (2002) noted that macrophages are â€Å"main effector cells†

Monday, July 22, 2019

Effect of cashless police in nigeria Essay Example for Free

Effect of cashless police in nigeria Essay Vol. 1 (2), pp. 040-043, April 2013. Research Article Impact of Cashless Economy in Nigeria *Omotunde Muyiwa1, Sunday Tunmibi,1 and John-Dewole A.T.2 1 School of Computer Science, Mathematics and Information Technology, Houdegbe North American University, Republic of Benin. 2 Department of Computer Science with Electronics, Faculty of Information Technology and Applied Sciences Lead City University, Ibadan. Nigeria. *Corresponding Author’s email: [emailprotected] ABSTRACT This paper studied the impact of cashless policy in Nigeria. The policy was introduced by Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) in December 2011 and was kick-started in Lagos in January 2012. Survey research was adopted with questionnaire as data collection instrument. Responses from the respondents show that cashless policy will increase employment; reduce cash related robbery thereby reducing risk of carrying cash; cashless policy will also reduce cash related corruption and attract more foreign investors to the country. The study, therefore, shows that the introduction of cashless economy in Nigeria can be seen as a step in the right direction. It is  expected that its impact will be felt in modernization of Nigeria payment system, reduction in the cost of banking services, reduction in high security and safety risks and also curb banking related corruptions. Keywords: Cashless economy, Cashless policy, Lagos State, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION Cashless economy is an economy where transaction can be done without necessarily carrying physical cash as a means of exchange of transaction but rather with the use of credit or debit card payment for goods and services. The cashless economy policy initiative of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) is a move to improve the financial terrain but in the long run sustainability of the policy will be a function of endorsement and compliance by end-users (Ejiro, 2012). The CBN cash policy stipulates a daily cumulative limit of N150, 000 and N1, 000,000 on free cash withdrawals and lodgments by individual and corporate customers respectively in the Lagos State with effect from March 30, 2012. Individuals and corporate organizations that make cash transactions above the limits will be charged a service fee for amounts above the cumulative limits. Furthermore, 3rd party cheques above N150, 000 shall not be eligible for encashment over the counter with effect from January 1, 2012. Value for such cheques shall be received through the clearing house. All Nigerian banks were expected to cease cash in transit lodgment services rendered to merchant-customers from January 1, 2012. The policy through the advanced use of information technology facilitates fund transfer, thereby reducing time wasted in Bank(s). Wizzit, a fast growing mobile banking company in South Africa has over three hundred thousand customers across South Africa. Likewise, M-PESA was introduced in Kenya as a small value electronic system that is accessible from ordinary mobile phones. It has experienced exceptional growth since its introduction by mobile phone operator (Safaricom) in Kenya in March, 2007 and has already been adopted by nine million customers, which is about 40% of Kenya’s adult population. Wizzit and other mobile financial services including MPESA in Kenya are helping low income Africans make financial transaction across long  distance with their cellphones, thereby reducing their travel cost and eliminating the risks of carrying cash and also avoiding most banking charges (Akintaro, 2012). It is assumed that the proper implementation of mobile phones and other technologies can aid the implementation of cashless policy and hence, the growth of cashless economy in Nigeria. The introduction of the implementation of cashless policy (policy is program of actions adopted by government) began in Lagos State, Nigeria. Why Lagos? According to Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, 2011) Lagos state accounted for 85% of POS and 66% of cheques transaction in Nigeria. Cashless economy aims at reducing the amount of physical cash circulating in the Nigeria economy and thereby encouraging more electronic–based transaction. According to Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, 2011) the policy is expected to reduce cost incurred in maintaining cash-based economy by 90% upon its full implementation in Nigeria. This study aims to look at the impact of cashless economy in Nigeria. www.gjournals.org 40 Greener Journal of Internet, Information and Communication Systems Vol. 1 (2), pp. 040-043, April 2013. 2. BRIEF LITERATURE REVIEW Cashless economy is not the complete absence of cash, it is an economic setting in which goods and services are bought and paid for through electronic media. According to Woodford (2003), Cashless economy is defined as one in which there are assumed to be no transactions frictions that can be reduced through the use of money balances, and that accordingly provide a reason for holding such balances even when they earn rate of return. In a cashless economy, how much cash in your wallet is practically irrelevant. You can pay for your purchases by any one of a plethora of credit cards or bank transfer (Roth, 2010). (2004) observed that developed countries of the world, to a large extent, are moving away from paper payment instruments toward electronic ones, especially payment cards. Some aspects of the functioning of the cashless economy are enhanced by e-finance, e-money, e-brokering and e-exchanges. These all refer to how transactions and payments are effected in a cashless economy (Moses-Ashike, 2011). Marco and Bandiera (2004) argue that increased usage of cashless banking instruments strengthens monetary policy effectiveness and that the current level of e-money usage does not pose a threat to the stability of the financial system. However, it does conclude that central banks can lose control over monetary policy if the government does not run a responsible fiscal policy. Echekoba and Ezu (2012), in a research carried out in Nigeria, observed that 68.2% of the respondent complained about long queues in the bank, 28.9% complained of bad attitude of teller officers (cashiers) while 2.89% complained of long distance of bank locations to their home or work places. Likewise, in her 24th NCS national conference in December 2011, CBN data shows that 51% of withdrawal done in Nigeria was through automated teller machine (ATM), while 33.6% was through over the counter (OTC) cash withdrawals and 13.6% through Cheques. Payment was also done through point of sales machine (POS) which accounted for 0.5% and web 1.3%. Therefore, if the introduction of ATM in Nigeria cash withdrawals system reduced OTC withdrawal; then it will implies that introduction of cashless policy supported by application of information technology can achieve more to reduce over dependent on cash payment in Nigeria economy system. However, Akhalumeh and Ohioka (2011) observed some challenges with the introduction of cashless policy. Their findings show that 34.0% of the respondents cited problem of internet fraud, 15.5% cited problem of limited POS/ATM, 19.6% cited problem of illiteracy and 30.9% stayed neutral the respondent not been sure of problem been expected or experienced. While in some quarters there was fear of unemployment, some believe it will create more jobs especially when companies manufacturing POS machine are cited in Nigeria. More so, data sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria portal shows that Lagos state, with a population of 17 million people, only has sixty one  Point Of Sales, twenty bank branches and twenty four ATMs per 100,000 people which are far less to satisfy the needs of the population. These data verify the claim of Echekoba and Ezu (2012) on the problem of cash based economy and cashless policy in Nigeria. For effective cashless implementation in Nigeria availability of suffi cient and well-functioning infrastructure (notably electricity), harmonization of fiscal and monetary policy, regular assessment of the performance of cashless banking channels, consideration of the present state and structure of the economy, redesign of monetary policy framework and greater efforts towards economic growth whilst managing inflation should be considered (Odior and Banuso, 2012). 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This study was carried out, using accidental sampling method, in Lagos state, Nigeria. A total of 500 traders, students and civil servants were sampled. Questionnaire was used as data collection instrument, with questions on demographics and benefits of cashless economy in Nigeria. The major statistical technique used was descriptive (use of frequency tables and charts). 4. RESULT 4.1 Demographics responses on gender show that male respondents accounted for 55.6% while the female respondents are 44.4%. Figure 1 and Figure 2 presents the responses on age and occupation, respectively. For age, majority of the respondents are between 18 to 25 years, this is followed by those between 26 to 40 years while the least number are between 41 to 60 years. For occupation of the respondents, the highest percentage (44.4%) is traders, followed by students (33.3%) and civil servants (22.2%). www.gjournals.org 41 Vol. 1 (2), pp. 040-043, April 2013. Greener Journal of Internet, Information and Communication Systems 41-60 years 22% 18-25 years 45% 26-40 years 33% Figure 1: Age of Respondents 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Traders Students Civil servants Figure 2: Occupation of Respondents 4.2 Benefits Table 1 shows the view of respondents on benefits of cashless economy in Nigeria. The lowest percentage, 11.1% of the respondents, believed that cashless policy will increase employment. A higher percentage, 22.2% of the respondents, believed that cashless policy in Nigeria will reduce cash  related robbery thereby reducing risk of carrying cash. The highest percentage of the respondents believed that cashless policy will reduce cash related corruption (33.3%) and cashless policy will attract more foreign investors to the country (33.3%). Table 1: Benefits of Cashless Economy in Nigeria Benefits of Cashless Economy Increase employment Reduce cash related robbery Reduce cash related corruption Attract more foreign investment Total Percentage (%) 11.1% 22.2% 33.3% 33.3% 100% www.gjournals.org 42 Greener Journal of Internet, Information and Communication Systems Vol. 1 (2), pp. 040-043, April 2013. 5. CONCLUSION The study, impact of cashless economy in Nigeria, focused on the three major categories by which Nigerians can be divided – traders, students and civil servants. More number of traders was sampled, compared to students and civil servants, because they are more into business and financial transactions. More so, a higher number of respondents within the age bracket of 18 and 25 years show that apart from students, quite a number of Nigerian youth are  also into trade. This study shows that the introduction of cashless economy in Nigeria can be seen as a step in the right direction. It is expected that its impact will be felt in modernization of Nigeria payment system, reduction in the cost of banking services as well as reduction in high security and safety risks. This should also include curbing banking related corruptions and fostering transparency. It is also assumed that the introduction of cashless policy in Nigeria will help to reduce the amount of bills and notes circulating in the economy. This should, therefore, reduce handling operation cost incurred on conventional money, as well as reduction in cash related crimes. It should also help to provide easy access to banking services for Nigerians. REFERENCES Akhalumeh, P.B., and Ohiokha, F. (2011): Nigeria’s Cashless Economy; The Imperatives. International Journal of Management Business Studies. vol.2 pp. 12 – 17. Akintaro, S. (2012): Going Cashless. IT Telecom digest, online magazine, august,2012 CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA (2011): Towards a Cashless Nigeria: Tools Strategies. Nigerian Journal of Economy. 3(2), 344 – 350. Echekoba, F.N., and Ezu, G.K. (2012): Electronic Retail Payment Systems: User Acceptability Payment Problems in Nigeria. Arabian Journal of Business Management Review. vol.5, pp. 60 – 63. Ejiro, O. (2012): What Nigerians Think of the Cashless Economy Policy. Nigerian Journal of Economy. 4(6), 97 – 102. Humphrey, D. B. (2004): ―Replacement of cash by cards in U.S. Consumer Payments, Journal of Economics and Business, 56, 211–225. Marco, A. and L. Bandiera (2004): -Monetary Policy, Monetary Areas and Financial Development with Electronic Money, IMF Working Study, IMF. Moses-Ashike, H. (2011),â€Å"Cashless Economic can Reduce Risk of Carrying Huge Cash†, [Online] Available: http://www.businessdayonline.com/†¦/22217. Odior, E.S., and Banuso, F.B. (2012): Cashless Banking in Nigeria: Challenges, Benefits Policy Implications. European Scientific Journal. Vol 8, pp. 12 – 16. Roth, B. L. (2010). â€Å"The Future of Money: The Cashless Economy – Part 1†. [Online] Available: https://www.x.com//future-money-cashless-economy—part-i. Woodford M. (2003). â€Å"Interest Price: Foundation of a Theory of Monetary Policy†, Princeton University Press. www.gjournals.org 43

Thesis Objectives Essay Example for Free

Thesis Objectives Essay An inventory control system is a process for managing and locating objects or materials. In common usage, the term may also refer to just the software components. Modern inventory control systems often rely upon barcodes and radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags to provide automatic identification of inventory objects. Inventory objects could include any kind of physical asset: merchandise, consumables, fixed assets, circulating tools, library books, or capital equipment. To record an inventory transaction, the system uses a barcode scanner or RFID reader to automatically identify the inventory object, and then collects additional information from the operators via fixed terminals (workstations), or mobile computers. [1] General Objectives This study aims to make a Programmable system that can give a user the benefits and easy access on their inventory. Specific objective. to identify what kind of system suits to their company, which may help them in many ways. to acknowledge the help of a programmable system. to know how to maintain the specific system, the researcher wants to create a system to propose to xyz company to help employees access their inventory much easier. An inventory control system is a process for managing and locating objects or materials. In common usage, the term may also refer to just the software components. Modern inventory control systems often rely upon barcodes and radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags to provide automatic identification of inventory objects. Inventory objects could include any kind of physical asset: merchandise, consumables, fixed assets, circulating tools, library books, or capital equipment. To record an inventory transaction, the system uses a barcode scanner or RFID reader to automatically identify the inventory object, and then collects additional information from the operators via fixed terminals (workstations), or mobile computers.[1] General Objectives This study aims to make a Programmable system that can give a user the  benefits and easy access on their inventory. Specific objective. to identify what kind of system suits to their company, which may help them in many ways. to acknowledge the help of a programmable system. to know how to maintain the specific system, the researcher wants to create a system to propose to xyz company to help employees access their inventory much easier.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Advantages and Disadvantages of NGOs

Advantages and Disadvantages of NGOs ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION AS MAJOR POLITICAL ACTOR IN GLOBAL SOUTH â€Å"To invest a little time and genuine support with real-world exchanges of information  grounded in what truly interests those in your own world†. -Mitch Throwe NGO are tugboats in international channels â€Å"Development is the strategy of evasion. When you can’t give people land reform and  Given them hybrid cows. When you can’t send children to school, try non-formal education. Then you can’t provide basic health to people, talk of health insurance. Can’t give them jobs? Not to worry, just redefine the word employment opportunities. Don’t want to do away with  Using children as a form of slave labor? Never mind. Talk of â€Å"improving the conditions of child  Labor!† It sounds good. You can even make money out of it†. -Palagumi Sainath, Everybody Loves a Good Drought; Stories form India’s Poorest Districts,  (Penguin Books, 1996), p.42 -Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) NGO describe to a non-profit citizens, voluntary entity organized national or internationally. Thus, professional association, trade unions, foundations, religions organizations, women’s,  youth groups, cooperative associations, human right associations, and development also some  environmental protection groups, research institutes concerning with international affairs and associations dealing parliamentarians are considered NGOs. The south-based NGOs that provide services either to the rural poor or to basic level membership organizations and institutes and also with local branches of international NGOs that enjoy varying levels of autonomy. NGOs are therefore primitive from historical or formal and informal membership organizations such as framers’ associations. Even within this, there exists wide range of origins and philosophy. The majority of NGOs is miniature of major NGOs structures with minor lines of communications and is therefore capable of responding accessibility feasibility and rapidly to its client’s requirements. They are also predefined by a work ethic conductive to generating sustainable processes and impacts of development in various fields. NGOs also presence in remote locations, where it is difficult to keep government staff in post. Role of NGOs Limited technical capacities and relevant small resources bases may characterize some  of NGOs. NGOs sometimes may have limited strategic manner and weak linkage  with other players in development. NGOs may have limited managerial and  organizational capacities. In some countries, the relationship between NGOs and  government may involve political, legal, ideological, and administrative constraints. NGOs in international processes perform many functions like settings agendas,  Negotiation outcomes, conferring legitimacy and implementing solutions. Some of its major roles are as follows: Supporting aspects: Demonstration ad pilot projects: NGOs have the advantage of selection particular places for new projects and specify and as well as improved projects and also advancing the length of time which they will be maintaining those projects and tackle some shortcomings that government projects overcoming some of shortcoming that governments face in this manner. Faciliatiate communication: NGOs also can facilitate communication between people and government. Evalaution and Research: Improved and innovative activities need to be carefully documented and shared effectively and specifically monitoring would accessible for the sharing of final results with people and with the project staff. NGOs also play and important role in advocacy manner that it is implement the governmental programs from criticism to advisable form. NGOs also play an important rule nationally and internationally indeed have a typical rule in helping and encouragement for governments to taking the actions for which they have given endorsement internationally. As actors in an global civil society As actors in a global civil society, NGOs can help to recreate a countervailing force to the process that can excluded people by re-distributing assets and opportunities, injecting social values into market processes, and holding economic institutions to account for their actions. This represents the cutting edge and implementations of innovation of much NGO work today and also for the future. NGOs also represent issues and its own views in the dynamics of the developmental processes. The UN Secretary –General in 1995 said: â€Å"NGOs are a basic element in representation of new world. In all continents of world NGOs are spreading in number rapidly. And this is inseparable from the aspiration to freedom and democracy which today animates international society. From the standpoint opinion and the mobilizing powers of NGOs†. NGOs are also facing challenges to generate themselves to work in more global and strategic tracks in future. In a sense this is what NGOs are already doing by integrating micro level actions in their sense projects and advocacy activities in exact way. NGOs must create form of concrete innovations at is grass-level to connect with enforcement that can be easily influence the shape of poverty, violence and many other exclusionary violent behaviors and also capture the world of knowledge. Role of NGOs in development cooperation The basics of non-governmental organizations remain the same: to provide basic services to those who need them. Many NGOs have demolished their ability to reach poor locality for working in an accessible areas and innovate areas or in other hand achieve things better than by official organizations and agencies. Many non-governmental organizations have an ability to reach poor people, work in inaccessible areas, innovate, or in other ways achieve things better than by official agencies. Many non-governmental organizations have closest linkage with poor group of people. Non-governmental organizations resources are largely additional; they complement the development effort of others, and they can help to make the development process more feasible, translucent, transparent, participatory and accountable. Non-governmental organizations not only â€Å"fill the gaps â€Å"but they also act as a response to failures in the public and private sectors in providing basics services. Relationship of NGOs A healthy relationship is only conceivable when both parties (government and Non-governmental organizations) share same objectives. If the governmental commitment to innovating the provision of turban services is weak or low level, Non-governmental organizations will always find dialogue and correlation or even counterproductive. When government has social agenda and where Non-governmental organizations are more effective, than there is the potential for strong, collaborative relationship found in both of them. However, the mutual distinct jealousy also appears to be deep-rooted.Governemts fear that NGOs threaten national security and can erode their power. And Non-governmental organizations mistrust over the motivation scenarios of officials and also of government. Though many of the strategic Non-governmental organizations are overcoming their inhibitions and are seeking closer collaboration with governments. To support these roles and relationships, Non-governmental organizations will need to develop a range of new and improve skills and competitive in learning, mediation dialogue bridging, maintaining and influencing. Now focus of Non-governmental organizations is on narrow management issues acquiring skills valued by donors, and formal or traditional concepts of lobbying, need to be replaced by capacities wide range and include the ability to listen, learn and team work at both locally and also globally. The balance of power Non-governmental organizations in world is very hard to shift as we found and organizing this conference. Non-governmental organizations paly high level legitimacy and accountability to mount, fatally undermining the credibility that NGOs will need if they are to play in global debates. Modifications and Sustainability Most Non-governmental organizations shows themselves as catalyst for change and as well as an actor affected by exclusive changes, such as the capacity development. In terms of type of activities andabout the receiver of Non-governmental organizations efforts. Whereas the object of capacity development efforts by Non-governmental organizations formally orusually has been civil society itself through a focus on the community. For change, action and intervention need to change. According to one author, capacity development hints radical changes in Non-governmental organizations action, leading to a significantly reduced role in problem identification, design and use of interventions and greater focus on help (in doing something), strategic inputs and supporting processes aimed at strengthening developing country capacity. Functionally, this means a move away forming projects to investments in developing country program and less reliance ontechnical assistance(Gordjin, 2006: 14 ). Equally, Uvin at al. suggest that Non-governmental organizations canreadjustand expand their action by using their knowledge through activities such as training, informat ion sharing,company that helps business and advice in order to promote changes in other institutions whocorrect (should) include (s) the provisions of such support services, that is, government (2000: 1414-1417). Criticism /Disadvantages of Non-governmental organizations There has additionally been reproval on how Non-governmental organizations have utilized their funding and other monies received or raised. There is additionally disparity between Non-governmental organizations in the north and Non-governmental organizations in the south between their viewpoints and conceptions in which to implement programs in cognation to development and human rights discretely. By endeavoring to amalgamate these two discourses across the globe can engender quandaries of fragmentation of conceptions and programs. If fragmentation were to occur it would be the antithesis intention of Non-governmental organizations that were endeavoring to cumulate human rights and development into kindred programs. Issa G. Shivii is one of Africa’s leading experts on law and development issues as an author and academics. His critique on Non-governmental organizations is found in two essays. â€Å"Silence in Non-governmental organizations discourse: The role and future of Non-governmental organizations in Africa Another reprove of Non-governmental organizations is that they are being designed and utilized as extensions of the mundane foreign policy instruments of certain Western countries and groups of countries. There has withal been inundating disaster of Non-governmental organizations utilizing while lies or misinformed advice to enact their campaigns. In other words, Non-governmental organizations have been quite nescient about critical issues because, as chief scientist at Greenpeace Doug Parr claims, these organizations have lost their efforts in being authentically scientific and are now more self-intrigued. Rather than through science so as to be rationally and efficaciously practical, Non-governmental organizations are now abusing the utilizations of science in order to gain their own advantages. Human Rights and Non-Governmental Organizations: (Some Channels for Non-governmental organizations Participation in international organizations) Some of the Case studies are as following: Non-governmental organizations representatives can be on a national delegation to an international conference to advice delegates from their government (Cairo Population Conference in 1994); Representatives from Non-governmental organizations can be included on a national delegation to an international conference to represent the NGO and conduct negotiations (International Labor Organization); NGOs can send delegates to semi-public international conferences (IUCN has a membership that includes 699 BGOs as well as states and government agencies); An international organization can set up an advisory group that includes experts from NGOs, who do not represent the Non-governmental organizations (UN Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters); An international organization can give Non-governmental organizations an opportunity to participate (not necessarily in a negotiating role) in an official conference to draft a teat (ECOSOC); An international organization can give NGOs an opportunity to participate in preparatory committees for an international conference (Rio earth summit in 1992, Johannesburg summit on sustainable development in 2002); An international organization can hold a special session to give Non-governmental organizations an opportunity to make presentations (General Assembly on sub-Saharan Africa in 1986); It’s also cover some main areas i.e. Women’s economic empowerment, in achievement gender equality. Organizational Implication: Some implications are as follows in the aspect of Non-governmental organizations field: How to create and move genuinely inclusively civil society at every level of world system. How to hold other organizations accountable for their actions and ensure that they respond to social and as well as environmental requirements? How to insure and improve that international regimes are both implemented effectively and work for the benefit of needy people and also for poor communities? How to approve that profit made at global field are translated into concentrate benefit at the base roots. The above challenges raise major questions about how Non-governmental organizations organize and improve themselves to work in more and more global aspects worldwide and also some improvement in the way for future. Conclusions NGOs play an increasingly important role in the development. Non-governmental organizations can bridge the gap between government and community. Community based organizations are essential in organizing poor people, taking major action and representing the interests of their members in dialogue between Non-governmental organizations and government. On the other hand, Non-governmental organizations are better at facial thing and supply the inputs into monumental and management, also mediating between people and the wide political party, internetworking information and policy reform. By enabling framework of laws, economic and political methods and conditions the State can play and perform a fundamental role in helping Non-governmental organizations and as well as for CBOs. Non-governmental organizations may have limited organizational and managerial capacities. In some of the countries, the relationship between NGOs and government may involve legal, administrative and some political entities. Sometimes questions arise concerning the motivations objectives of Non-governmental organizations, and the degree of flexibility NGOs accept for the it’s final impact of policies and also positions they advocate. The variety of activities in which Non-governmental organizations participate has increasing rapidly since the 1980s, witnessing particular expansion in the 1990s.This has been presented Non-governmental organizations, specifically those that operate at pressure of centralization and decentralization. By centralization Non-governmental organizations, particularly those that operate at international level, they can easily assign a common theme or set of goals. Intervarsity it is also advantageous to decentralize as these increases the chances of an Non-governmental organizations behaving flexibility and effectively to localized issues. The strength of Non-governmental organizations , operating at the field level, it’s their ability to create close links to local communities, and to engender community ownership and participation in improvement at developmental effort. References: 1-Source: Charnovitz, Steve. 1997. â€Å"Two Centuries of Participation: Non-governmental organizations and international† Michigan Journal of International Law18 (2): 281-282 2-Role of Non-governmental Organizations in development cooperation Research paper, UNDP/Yale Collaborated Programme, 1999 research Clinic, New Haven 1999: Olena P. Maslyukivska 3-NGO funding Policy: INTERACT-NGO Research Programme, 2001 4-Aid, NGO and Civil Society: Eldis, 2003 5-Edwards, M. (1997) Organizational learning in NGOs: what have we learned? Public administration and development 17 (2), 235-50. 6-World Bank (1991 1b), Trends in developing countries 1991. Washington, DC: World Bank. 7- Palagumi Sainath, Everybody Loves a Good Drought; Stories form India’s Poorest Districts, (Penguin Books, 1996), p.42

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Character of Beloved from Beloved by Toni Morrison Essay -- Papers

The Character of Beloved from Beloved by Toni Morrison The character of Beloved, from Toni Morrison?s novel, Beloved, is an embodiment of the evils of slavery. Beloved, the daughter of a former slave, is a child who died before her time, therefore her existential search for identity parallels the search of self that slavery created in an innumerable amount of human beings. When reading the novel, Beloved, it is vital for the inexperienced reader to pay attention to the trials of Beloved, as they are the trials of slavery. The character of Beloved, was reborn through the souls of slavery, and gathered their collective memories as she emerged from watery depths, through a river akin to the ocean crossed by slave ships enroute to the New World. ?A fully dressed woman walked out of the water. She barely gained the dry bank of the stream before she sat down and leaned against a mulberry tree? (50). Beloved?s birth from water is an important metaphor for the river of life. When Beloved talks of dying, she speaks of being ?on the bridge? with Sethe departing from her. Don?t you remember we played together by the stream ?I was on the bridge,? said Beloved. ?You see me on the bridge ?No, by the stream. The water back in the woods.? ?Oh, I was in the water. I saw her diamonds down there. I could touch them.? ?What stopped you ?She left me behind. By myself,? said Beloved? (75). The material bridge spanning the river is a metaphor for the spiritual bridge between life and death. Beloved speaks of waiting on the bridge, then crossing over to the ?other side,? where the souls of other victims of slavery awaited sharing their collective memories with her. Therefore, when Be... ...ractice of slavery that is centered upon the human aspects of one family. Due to the fact that Beloved focuses on Sethe and her family, it is possible for the reader to become engrossed in the novel without realizing they are absorbing Morrison?s underlying message. This causes the novel to carry a more powerful message regarding slavery that a history text of the same historical content. Although the reader may not realize that the character of Beloved is a metaphor for the practice of slavery on a conscious level, the statement is absorbed on an unconscious level, allowing the reader to experience deep emotions over the horrors of such a practice. When interviewed Toni Morrison stated that the novel, Beloved, ?rocked her? and took ?everything she had? to compose. In turn, the novel evokes such pain within the reader that it takes everything one has to read.

Dead White Males - David Williamson :: essays research papers

"Carpe Diem" In the film Dead Poet’s Society there is an environment created that was rigid and strict. At Welton Academy there were four pillars of ideals that students must attain to and follow. These were excellence, honor, tradition, and discipline. A new teacher was appointed to teach English. John Keating brought with him a style that promoted the individual. This was in direct contrast to the four pillars of ideals. Mr. Keating’s Latin saying of Carpe Diem, which meant seize the day, was something that would cause problems to arise at the academy. A few of his students would deviate from academy’s path. Knox Overstreet was a young man who was attending Welton Academy. He had followed all the rules as everyone else and obeyed. However after a few of Mr. Keating’s classes he changed his outlook of life. Knox had an affinity towards this girl, Chris Noel, but it was against school policy to have women on campus during a semester. With the new saying of Carpe Diem in his mind, Knox ignored the rules and ensued after Chris. In his wooing he attended parties and even met her at her public high school. If the Headmaster found news of this, Knox would have been expelled. Despite all the consequences Know decided to seize the day and forget the whims of society to follow his dreams. Another student of John Keating’s was Charles Dalton. He was more laid back than Knox but he still adhered to the academy’s rules and regulations. Charles was completely taken by the saying, and changed his lifestyle. At the boys illegal Dead Poet’s Society meetings in which they read aloud poetry, he brought tobacco pipes and alcohol as well as girls. As seen by his new name, Nwanda, Charlie broke free of the strict life he had to follow at Welton. He even defied the Headmaster during a meeting by interrupting his speech with a phone call from "God". Although this new behavior ultimately led to his expulsion, the li fe at Welton was probably not suitable for an individual like him. Neil Perry was greatly moved by the Latin words, Carpe Diem. His father set forth such high demands and little choice for Neil. His disciplinarian father mapped out his career and life. Neil always submitted to his father but was always left unhappy and not content with all that his father had planned and all the rules that he had to abide by.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Theme of Fate and Choice in Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet Essays

The Theme of Fate and Choice, in William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet In William Shakespeare's tragic play Romeo and Juliet, there are four quotes about fate and choice. The characters in the play choose their own fate, it happens because of their choices or actions. First, in the beginning of the play Romeo and Juliet are referred to as 'a pair of star-crossed lovers' (Romeo and Juliet, Prologue). Second, Romeo explains to Mercutio how he has a dream that if he goes to the Montague party he will die, but Romeo chooses to go to the party anyway. Third, Romeo kills Tybalt right after his marriage to Juliet. Fourth, Romeo decides to commit suicide because he hears of Juliet's death. The first quote on fate and choice is 'a pair of star crossed lovers' (Romeo and Juliet, Prologue). The above quote shows the theme of fate because the quote establishes to the audience that Romeo and Juliet are fated to die in the play. The second quote is I fear, too early, for my mind misgives Some consequence, yet hanging in the stars, Shall bitterly begin his fateful date With th...