Saturday, August 24, 2019
Is a happy worker necessarily a productive worker - Essay Example One such theory or belief that has been around for a long time is that a happy worker is a more productive worker. In this essay I have addressed the issue of Ã¢â¬Å"Is a happy worker necessarily a productive worker?Ã¢â¬ I believe that a happy worker can be more productive than an unhappy worker but it can not be said with complete conviction that a happy worker has to be more productive. I will draw on theories of motivation, attitudes and job satisfaction in order to prove the above. Before going on to see if a happy worker is a productive worker, I will first try to put forward the concept of happiness. Happiness can not be well defined in a systematic way. It involves a number of variables. Happiness at workplace is a combined effect of numerous factors such as quality of life at work, job satisfaction, employee attitude, overall life satisfaction, negative effects, positive effects, socialization, etc (Zelenski et al., 2008). Two main aspects that contribute to happiness at a work place are employee attitude and job satisfaction. Employees have their own views on various aspects of their work, their personal career and on the organization as a whole. These viewpoints are affected by various factors and make up the attitudes of the employees at the workplace. Job satisfaction on the other hand is also an attitude but is the most focal of all the attitudes (Saari & Judge, 2004). Job Satisfaction is best described by Locke (1976; p1304) as Ã¢â¬Å"a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s job or job experiences.Ã¢â¬ But most important aspect here is that job satisfaction is not completely responsible for happiness as it is not just related to the events at the workplace. Life satisfaction which involves the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s personal life also contributes to happiness and in fact plays a bigger role than job satisfaction. Now, returning to the purpose of this essay. Different employees have different needs and each one of them measure happiness using different parameters. In the following paragraphs I will introduce numerous theories and studies put forward by experts in the field that have contributed towards proving that happy workers might not necessarily be a more productive. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of hierarchy of needs According to MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of hierarchy of needs human behavior is determined by the progression of individual internal needs. He categorized the need hierarchicall y as physiological, safety and security, social, esteem and self actualization. According to him, an individual will first try to fulfill his basic needs as food, shelter, etc and then move on the higher level needs. According to this theory there is no connection between human behavior and happiness until the lower level needs are fulfilled. If a stage is not fulfilled then the individual is motivated to fulfill this stage before going to the next one (Nelson & Quick, 2007). Same can be applied to an organization. An employee in an organization is motivated by his manager to fulfill uncompleted stages. The manager can motivate the employee by offering rewards or other benefits such as promotions. Each employee will be motivated by different means and this necessarily is to fulfill their needs rather than attaining happiness.
Friday, August 23, 2019
All is about Malala - Essay Example The writer then twists the situation, and presents a sudden change in the living condition of Malala where he presents the fact that she is shot. The reader is shocked to learn that a person who is so capable of bring a change has been crippled by an outsider. The consequence of using this technique is the building of a scenario that portrays Ã¢â¬ËtragedyÃ¢â¬â¢; humans when faced with tragic situations are programmed to display feelings of sympathy. Later on in the text, the writer mentions her recovery from injury in such a dramatic way where instead of admiring the efforts of the medical experts, the focus is on MalalaÃ¢â¬â¢s recovery; which is done intentionally to support the earlier claim of Malala being a very capable person. Here again, the writer manages to gain sympathy of the reader by implying that the bad-element of the society is defeated by the good element. For the sake of comparison and contrast, the case of Emma Sulkowicz is taken as parallel to MalalaÃ¢â¬â¢s case in this task. Emma was raped by a classfellow of hers on her first day; this incident happened on the campus. Although she remained quiet in the start, which was largely due to her dread of becoming a victim of her offender again, she ultimately managed to report the incident to the authorities after she realized that two of her other classfellows had also gone through the same misery and pain. As opposed to MalalaÃ¢â¬â¢s case, where she was the only person who stood to oppose the negatively affecting Talibans, Emma only spoke when she was sure that she was not alone and there are other people who were suffering from the same problem. Emma spoke against injustice by seeking help from the authorities and the judicial system of the country. This was largely due to the existence of infrastructure that assists people in getting justice. Malala on the other hand
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Norse, Teutonic, or Scandinavian mythology Essay Thought (Hugin) and Memory (Munin) were the two ravens that went unto the world to observe and return to tell of what all men do, Driven by further search for knowledge, Odin begged Mimir, the wise, to allow him to drink from the well of wisdom, for this he consented to lose an eye. Wounded I hung on wind swept gallows For nine long nights, Pierced by a spear, pledged to Odin, Offered myself to myself: The wisest know not from whence spring The roots of that ancient rood. They gave me no bread, they gave me no mead: I looked down; with a loud cry I took up the runes and I fell. (The Elder Edda 56) Here we find Odin once more sacrificing himself for knowledge, In The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Mythology it is said that Odin actually died on the gallows of Yggdrasil, that he traversed Nifleheim, or Hel in order to obtain the nine sacred runes, that seem to be extremely powerful as described in The Elder Edda. The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Mythology adds yet another theory to Odin hanging himself, The parallel between Odins voluntary death on Yggdrasil and the crucifixion remains striking. Odin was pierced with a spear and like Christ, cried out before he died there is little doubt that his hanging on the cosmic tree had pre-Christian origins and derived from ancient pagan worship. Odin had long been the god of the spear, the god of the hanged. This could definitely be determined as less than speculation, seeing as we must rely on our sources and to this point one could say that this is a very valid and well thought out work. Regardless of minor differences in text again we must as they did default ourselves to the larger span of information. There were two different groups of gods in Scandinavian Mythology, The Aesir and the Vanir. Each having their own respective dwelling place, Asgard for the Aesir, and Vanaheim for the Vanir. Of the two, The Vanir have been said to be the older. Unlike the warrior Aesir, the Vanir were a race of gods associated with fertility, wealth, and good weather. (The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Mythology 500) Among the Vanir were, Njord, the sea and fortune god, Skadi, the god of destruction, Freyja, the goddess of love, and Freyr the god of Fertility. Among the Aesir were, Odin, Balder, Bragi, Forseti Heimdall, Hodr, Thor, Tyr, Vili, Ve, Vidar, Frigg, Sif, and Idun. At one point in time there was a great war between these two branches of gods, yet both the Aesir, and the Vanir came to terms by exchanging several prominent gods of each side. The Vanir sent Njord, Freyr, Freyja, and Kvasir, while the Aesir sent Mimir, and Honir. The Vanir soon found that they got the bad end of the deal due to the fact that Mimir was the only one who knew what he was talking about, and that in his absence Honir, wasnt really that bright. The Vanir then sliced of Mimirs head and sent it back to Asgard, where Odin used Powerful magic to allow Mimirs head to speak. Little else is known of the Vanir, they seemed to lose importance quickly after it was concluded that the war was resolved however it was noted that Vanaheim, was potentially unaffected by Ragnarok. This shows evidence of two religions colliding with Scandinavian and Germanic mythology. Revealing to us that Scandinavian mythology has most definately influenced by other ancient tales and stories. (Cherry, Vanaheim) Scandinavian mythology might have been the inspiration to several works of modern day literature. It is Nicole Cherrys opinion that Tolkien was very well acquainted with the northern mythos, as can be seen by the use of it in his books. The name of one of his main characters, Gandalf, is found in The Poetic Edda. Gandalf is, in some ways, reminiscent of Odin, the leader of the Norse pantheon. Even the name Middle-earth, the setting for Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, comes from Norse mythology. There are several other modern day works of literature based on or derived from Scandinavian mythology as well, such as, The Ring of the Nibelung and The Nibelungenlied. These works, may well show the effect and legacy of Scandinavian Mythology in the World. Another notable element of Tolkeins Lord of The Rings was his use of the ring itself to the Viings the ring meant wealth honor fame and destiny. It was in fact a tradition to give rings to neighboring countries, bringing to notice the ever prominent focal point of the Lord of the Rings. (Day 29) There is no Heaven or Hell in Scandinavian mythology, the only hope is to be brought up to Asgard by a Valkyrie or Battle Maiden. Even then those chosen or the Einherjar (The Heroic dead) faced defeat at Ragnarok in the Final Battle on the Vigrid Plain. This may be unlike any other focal point of religion known. It reasons in many ways that the only way to gain honor is to die in battle unfaltering. Scandinavian Mythology, although comparable to other religions or other pagan beliefs is an original and unique work of the Norwegians, Swedish, Icelandic, and Danish peoples of Europe. Hamilton describes it justly by saying, Asgard, the home of the gods, is unlike any other heaven men have dreamed of. No radiancy or joy is in it, no assurance of bliss, it is a grave and solemn place, over which hangs the threat of inevitable doom the same is true for humanity this conception of life which underlies Norse religion, as somber a conception the human mind has ever given birth to A heroic death is not a defeat, but a triumph. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE JRR Tolkien section.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Violence Is A Feminist Issue Sociology Essay Violence against women and children has always been a concern for women movements. Violence within the family set-up was seen as a social problem and this was recognized by women rights movements who acted as catalysts in the 1870s for human rights (Costin et al., 1996; Gordon, 2002). In the early 1900s, feminism was an original expression of women advocates who were campaigners of right to life and right for women to vote in the United States and the United Kingdom. Later on in the 1970s, the meaning of feminism was changed by liberals in order to have a representation of people who were in favour of abortion and similar roles for women in the society. My purpose in this essay will be to define and problematise key concepts used such as violence, feminism and patriarchy using various definitions given by key authors. My main focus in this paper will be to discuss violence against women and demonstrate that violence is a feminist issue by examining radical feminist arguments around p atriarchal violence against women. I will also argue that violence is not only a feminist issue basing on the violent experiences men go through in a human rights perspective then critically analyze the findings. Violence to start with has been defined in various ways by a number of authors. According to Martin Luther Kings (1964), Violence is immoral because it thrives on hatred rather than love. It destroys a community and makes brotherhood impossible. World Health Organization (WHO) defines violence as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person or against a group or community that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation. This kind of violence as described by WHO, could be self-directed, interpersonal or collective kind of violence. Stanko (2003) states that what violence means is and will always be fluid, not fixed; it is mutable (2003: 3). For the purposes of this essay, I will use Salmis (1993) definition which states that violence is any avoidable action that constitutes a violation of a human right, in its widest meaning, or which prevents the f ulfillment of a basic human need (Salmi 1993, Chap 3). Feminism on the other hand according to historian and activist Cheris Kramarae (1991), is the fundamental idea that women are human beings and as a movement, it advocates for womens rights where they live on equal terms with men and no discrimination is put upon them by the law or their culture. In general terms, feminism can be described as a movement for social, cultural, political and economic equality of men and women. It strives for equal rights for women by promoting campaigns against gender inequalities. Feminism has had several historical waves which have stated various rights of women over time. The first-wave feminism which came between the 18th Century and the World War II aimed at ensuring that women had basic civil rights such as voting and owning property. The second-wave feminism started at the end of the World War II until the 1980s when the amendment of the equal rights was defeated. Its main agenda was to campaign for equality between both women and male sexes (Rosen, 2000) by trying to pass the Equal Rights Amendment and also protect the womens reproductive choice. The last wave was the third -wave feminism which wanted to seek equality for all women form racial justice, class oppression to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender rights. Liberal, radical and cultural feminism are different kinds of feminism which seek for various rights for women, these will be discussed at a later state of this essay. For the purposes of this essay, I will also discuss patriarchy. Patriar chy in general is described as a system in which men have power over women. According to Renzetti Curran(1999), patriarchy is a system of social stratification, which means that it uses a wide array of social control policies and practices to ratify male power and to keep girls and women subordinate to men (1999: 3) . Violence is a feminist issue Feminism has played a major role in effecting the social changes in the Western society and this has resulted to giving it more attention. Some people see feminism as an acceptable form of fighting for women rights while others look at it as a destroying factor of traditional gender roles in the society in which some feminists say that these roles are used to oppress and silence women. The feminity and masculinity of human beings has been challenged by radical feminists as mutually exclusive and biologically determined categories. Radical feminists seek to eradicate feminity and masculinity characteristics restricting womens competences and reinforcing male dominance. While sex differences are linked to biological differences between male and female, gender differences are imposed socially or even politically by constructed contrasting stereotypes of masculinity and femininity (de Beauvoir, 1970: 258). Radical feminists consider patriarchy as the root cause of social problems such as inequalities, oppressions, and injustices indicating that oppression of women came from the underlying bias of a patriarchal society. These feminists argue that patriarchal violence against women keeps women subordinate, oppressed and unequal to their male counterparts. The term violence against women according to the declaration of the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995 means any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, patriarchy was mainly used to describe the power of fathers (patriarchs) within families and according to Fredriech Engels (1884) and Max Weber (1922) family-centered patriarchy was imita ted in the economic and political dominance of men in society. The broader system of family centered patriarchy was called patrimonialism by Weber. Radical feminists such as Brownmiller (1975); Griffin (1971); Millett (1971) and Mitchell (1971), argue that the greatest capacity for male violence against women is linked to the origin and nature of patriarchy and that violence is a something that men use to control and maintain their dominance. Brownmiller (1975) and Mitchell (1971) believe that for men to act violently there is an existence of dissimilar level of physical strength between sexes. On the other hand, Millett (1971) and Griffin (1971) denote that there is a difference on how the two opposite sexes use violence which is influenced by culture and current technological developments. It has been assumed that all men are capable of being violent and that all women are submissive. The aim of Radical feminists has been to determine individual identity; free language and culture from the masculinity seize, and re-organize the power of politics, determine the significance of human behaviour and challenge what is valuable to i ndividuals. Mandell (1995) argues that radical feminists believe that unless the notion of sexuality is reformed and rebuilt, womens image and representation will always be subordinate to men. According to Heywood (2003) Women are subordinated as a sex that is subject to pervasive oppression and not as individuals who happen to be denied rights or opportunities (2003:254). Radical feminists have raised the shortcomings of individualism as the basis of gender politics and this has resulted to ignoring the structural role that patriarchy plays. They have received criticisms from Marxist feminists for completely ignoring the basis of patriarchy which happens to be historical, materialistic and economic. At the same time, Alison Jaggar in Feminist Politics and Human Nature (1971) states that social organizations determine gender differences in the society and so women should be in control of their lives. Jaggar (1971) critiques radical feminists for not recognizing reasons that brought about patriar chy and its structures. Violence is not only a feminist issue Men continue to experience domestic violence within the society and even though many of them do not come out to report about the abuse, the issue is still a human rights matter that has to be addressed. In this essay, I will be interested in exploring the human rights perspectives and compare them with the feminists ones in order to come up with an argument that covers both sides of gender violence. Stanko (2006) argues that gender is more that just being male or female. Many people only view gender as a psychological and social system of reference. According to Stanko (2006) the work of feminists on domestic and sexual violence clearly explains the criminal harm against humanity as a justification to freedom of behavior in close relationships. Feminists insist on dealing with violence as ordinary and everyday activities in womens lives whereas human rights activists follow legal dimensions that address the needs of each and every individual in order to enjoy the conditions that call for a decent life. Stanko (2006) continues to state that in domestic settings, mens experiences of sexual and physical violence should be treated as similar to that of women. For a very long time, criminology as a discipline has portrayed womens use of violence against men as normal (Klein, 1973). Human rights, according to Merry (2006) promote equality, individual choices, individual autonomy and secularism. Gender violence which includes violence against women is a violation against human rights and as Merry argues, it is deeply established from the cultural and religious beliefs. Very often, the communities that commit acts of aggression resist change. Womens human rights are violated in a number of ways and many a times, the violation of womens rights is mainly by the fact that they are female and are abused on the basis of their gender. Many people have argued that feminism has been re-shaped by the fact that the last decade has seen major changes in terms of labelling womens rights as human rights (Walby, 2002). Historically, women as both victims and offenders have had many disadvantages in the eyes of the law and men have dominated in each aspect from politics to domestic settings. Theorists such as Copelon, (1994) and Roth (1994) have argued that in order to disclose the usefulness of human rights for women, public and private divide relating to violence against women has to be challenged. Comparing feminist with human rights perspective, it is clear that in reference to the terms of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, women enjoy the same rights, freedoms and autonomy as men. Feminism has been known for contending for gender equality and bringing to an end the gender based discriminations against women. Most feminists do not agree to the fact that men are equally oppressed as women and they insist that equality between sexes would make the society a better place. While feminisms agenda is to campaign against gender inequalities and strive for equal rights for women, human rights motives provide the general basic fundamental rights which each human being is entitled to. Femin ists agree with the fact that human rights provides rights for all human beings and addresses their needs but they claim that human rights does not include cultural diversity and gender perspectives thus limiting its interests. Various feminists argue that some of the womens rights have been neglected and have proposed that all women rights be included in the human rights protection system considering that the main difference between men and women is the biological otherwise they all have equal rights. Analysis It has been argued that feminists of the second wave especially those in the USA between 1970 and 1985 focused mainly on violence against women because this violence resulted in to a patriarchal system which gave explanations to the biological difference between men and women. According to an article by Martinez (2011), the social and sexual control of women by men in patriarchal societies was linked to the use of violence against women and the second wave feminists contend that domestic violence is associated with the fact that men are more powerful than women , there are biological differences between men and women and that it is men who commit acts of violence against women. Due to the cultural and religious norms that people belief in, many womens rights are violated in family set-ups and this has made human rights activists change their way of thinking in order to make an impact to the society. In reference to the Working Conference on Womens Rights as Human Rights held in Dublin (1997) and the discussions in this essay, it is clear that feminism and human rights have several differing components but they both have a common world view. In the Western society, feminism has become popular because of the social changes it has brought about although this has not passed without critisms. It has been noted that some feminist movements have invaded on the traditional gender roles which has harmonized the society in the sense that women have been silenced and oppressed. At the same time, there has been a massive negative impact on men due to the fact that a number of advocates for mens rights claim that they have been oppressed by the social changes and legal reforms taking place for example, the law favouring mothers in divorce cases involving custody hearings. It is true some of the men go through domestic violence and other oppressions but statistics show that 11% of men had exp erienced domestic violence compared to 32% of women who actually experienced domestic violence four or five (or more) times more (Walby and Allen, 2004). This means that mens experience of violence is much less that that of women. According to (Walby and Allen, 2004) 89% of women represented all those who had experienced incidents of domestic violence 4 or more times. Male dominance has promoted the idea in the society amongst women that they are more superior thus creating a power gap between men and women. Patriarchal society has been identified by the existence of men whose thinking and ideas are influenced by their cultural norms. The patriarchal social structures according to Johnson (1997) Ã are male dominated, male centered, societal and personal attributes are associated with men and they are valued for their ability to put things in control unlike women who have no control over anything. It is evident that these factors have contributed in a big way to domestic violence and other kinds of women oppression and has driven most feminists to fight for equity and demonstrate the importance of women in the society. Evidence has also shown that violence is also a human rights issue with the arguments that the human rights activists protect the rights of all human beings against violence and any sort of abuse. Despite the fact that human rights activists are doing a good job, there has been a big conflict between human rights activists and feminists in addressing violence issues especially those affecting women. In a paper presented by Krishna Mallick (1998) at the World Congress of Philosophy in Boston on the common ground of feminism and cultural Relativism in Human Rights Discourse, feminists have argued that gender and culture must be included in the human rights systems because human rights in itself should incorporate all human beings rights irrespective of gender and culture. According to Mallick (1998), feminists recommend that human rights framework be revised in order to consider the differences like the reproductive and sexual anatomy rights that exist in a woman. It could be argued that both feminists and human rights activists play a major role in ensuring that violence against women is addressed despite the fact that both sides criticize each other. Much of this essay clearly indicates how feminism has effected changes in the society in fighting for women equal rights although men were not left behind in the human rights discussion. I will conclude this essay by indicating that that violence is both a feminist and a human rights issue and that both can work together to effect positive change on to the society. Conclusion Feminism has received a lot of criticism but that this criticism has failed to account for the extent to which it has played a major role in protecting the rights of a common woman. According to Winston (2012) feminism has been a core movement in protecting women from the storm of patriarchy and historically, these feminists have been able to bring to attention issues that affecting women especially accessing education and also getting jobs in areas where men have been in occupancy for a long time. Morgan (1989) states that it is undeniable that history record of most women acting peaceably and most men acting belligerently to a point where the capacity for belligerence is regarded as an ingredient of manhood and the proclivity for conciliation is thought largely a quality of women (1989:27). It is evident that feminists have helped many women to be self determined and to have legal representation on various issues ranging from domestic to international level. This essay has considered the definitions of violence, feminism and patriarchy, discussion of violence against women and has demonstrated that violence is a feminist issue by examining radical feminist arguments around patriarchal violence against women. I have also stated that violence is not only a feminist issue basing on the violent experiences men go through in a human rights perspective. I tend to think that feminism has helped both men and women on gender issues and its principles. Patriarchy has been challenged and violence against women is becoming a thing of the past through the campaigns that are being undertaken by feminists. It would be important to see human rights activists and all feminists work together in fighting gender and violence issues because violence is not only a feminist issue but also a human rights concern.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Leading causes of morbidity and mortality Abstract Background: Communicable diseases can be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among population affected by major disasters or public health emergencies. Cyclone Nargis which was the worst natural disaster in Myanmar hit the delta area during May 2008. The objective of this study is aimed to assess the situation of communicable diseases under national surveillance in the areas one year before and after the Cyclone Nargis incident. Methods: Monthly data during 2007 and 2009 from routine reporting system for disease surveillance of the Myanmar Ministry of Health (MMOH) were reviewed. Weekly reporting from Early Warning and Rapid Response (EWAR) were also used to compare with the routine reporting data of MMOH; and the data from some UN agencies, non-governmental organizations (INGOs/NGOs) and Tri-Partite Core Group (TCG) periodic reviews were also extracted for comparisons with Sphere and Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) for global health cluster communicable diseases control indicators. In addition, focus groups regarding community perception on health sector responses to Cyclone Nargis and hospital surveys on public health emergencies preparedness including surveillance capacity were conducted. Results: Among the communicable diseases, acute respiratory infection (ARI), diarrhea, dysentery and malaria were the most disease burden of the community in terms of both morbidity and morality. During the study period, mortality rate for diarrhea and malaria were decreasing while the mortality rate for ARI appeared to be similar before and after the Nargis incident. Community members also reported that diarrhea diseases, ARI and pneumonia were common health problems immediately after Cyclone Nargis but later declined. Other diseases under national surveillance were also changed. Tuberculosis control program reached the targets of 70% case detection and 85% treatment success rate in 2007 and 2008. Even though the morbidity for STDs such as genital ulcer rate and male urethral discharge rates were not change over time but the coverage of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services was expanded in the year after Nargis. For the expanded program on immunization ( EPI), the coverage of DPT 3rd dose reached the target of around 90%, which was the highest, after Cyclone Nargis; but the measles coverage still did not reach the Sphere target. The sanitary latrine coverage in the Nargis affected area was 72% in 2009 as compared to the national sanitary latrine coverage of around 80%. Conclusion: In general, health services as well as prevention and control measures provided to the Nargis affected population had reduced the excess morbidity and mortality of the communicable diseases recommended by Sphere. However, the distribution of such health services varied among townships within the affected areas. There is still considerable need for equity in distribution of health services for the public health emergency management. Background There are approximately 450 to 800 major emergencies, disasters and crises per year; and these has been shown as increasing trends due to global warming, increase population movement, environmental damage, poverty and inadequate or underfunded public health system . The general effects of disasters or emergencies include injury, death, infectious diseases outbreak, displacing a large number of people, disruption of essential services, destruction of property and infrastructure, economic loss and psychological effect [2, 3]. The magnitude and causes of excess morbidity and mortality caused by emergencies and disasters may vary according to the underlying demographic and epidemiologic profile of the population . During emergency and disaster situation, communicable diseases can cause high mortality and morbidity because of disruption of health services, poor access to health care, malnutrition and inadequate logistic supply [5, 6]. Disaster-affected people are particularly vulner able to communicable diseases due to malnutrition, stress, fatigue and unsanitary living conditions . Cyclone Nargis struck the coast of Myanmar on 2 and 3 May, 2008 and causing many deaths, destroying infrastructure, affecting on economic and social activities. It was the most devastating natural disaster in history of Myanmar and the most deadly cyclone in Asia since 1991 with 2.4 million people were severely affected by Nargis . The common water and food borne diseases in the affected area before Cyclone Nargis were diarrhea diseases including cholera, typhoid, shigellosis, hepatitis A and E and acute watery diarrhea. Dengue and malaria has been the major vector borne diseases endemic in the affected area. Measles, acute respiratory infection (ARI), diphtheria, pertusis and meningococcal diseases were reported as associated with the overcrowding in the area. Others diseases endemic in the region were tuberculosis, snake bites and sexually transmitted infection (STIs) . Early Warning and Rapid Response (EWAR) was set up after Cyclone Nargis with involvement of other national and international agencies working in Nargis affected area . EWAR covers 16 common diseases and conditions in the affected area. This study was carried out to examine communicable disease burden and the changes in morbidity and mortality of the diseases under national surveillance in Cyclone Nargis affected area. The study also attempted to assess the effectiveness of control measures of these diseases employing health management information system indicators of the Sphere and Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) for global health cluster communicable diseases indicators [10, 11]. Materials and Methods Study sites The focus of data collection in this study included 10 townships in Ayeyarwady and Yangon divisions which were severely affected by Cyclone Nargis. These townships in Ayeyarwady division included Ngapudaw, Labutta, Bogale, Pyapon, Dedaye, Kyaiklat and Mawlamyinegyun townships while those in Yangon division Twantay, Kawnmu and Kungyangon townships. There were about 2.8 million people living at these townships in 2007 . Secondary data sources In examining communicable diseases burden and changes in mortality and morbidity of diseases under national surveillance, system data were extracted from the Health Management Information System (HMIS) of the Myanmar Ministry of Health (MMOH). The HMIS is the routine reporting system for 17 diseases under national system in Myanmar, with monthly reporting from township to central level . The official secondary data during 2007-2009 from the Department of Health, and Department of Health Planning regarding communicable diseases prevention and control programs such as immunization and water-sanitation program were also extracted for assessing the situations of such communicable diseases at the township level. In addition, other related data such as distribution of relief items from EWAR, Myanmar Red Cross Society and Myanmar offices (WHO, UNICEF, Save the Children, Merlin and MSF (Holland)) were also requested for exploring the strength and weakness in the communicable diseases man agement. Moreover, data from the periodic reviews released by Tri-partite Core Group (TCG) are also used for supplementation of population data . Primary data Sources The study employed both quantitative and qualitative data collection method. The questionnaire regarding public health emergencies preparedness, particularly on disease surveillance capacity, was developed and sent to hospitals under Department of Health. The questionnaires were sent to 65 hospitals (25% of the total 252 hospitals in coastal Myanmar which includes all 5 states/divisions (i.e., Yangon, Ayeyarwaddy, Mon, Tanintharyi and Rakhine). The questionnaires were responded by hospital directors from those hospitals by means of self administered method. Focus group discussion was used to find out the community perception on health sector response to Cyclone Nargis. The totals of 6 focus groups discussion were carried out in 3 villages among the selected townships in the affected areas. Only issues related to communicable diseases were presented in this paper. The detailed analyses of hospital preparedness and community perceptions were reported elsewhere. Ethical Consideration This study received ethical approvals from Myanmar Ministry of Health and Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University. Results Disease surveillance in study areas For disease surveillance, MMOH sets up the coordinating health sectors for disease surveillance, outbreak detection and response. The diseases surveillance data were submitted form local level up to national health information management system (HMIS). After Cyclone Nargis, the MMOH also set up EWAR with rumor verification of the system for disease monitoring and management, particularly for early warning and rapid responses. It was recognized by the MMOH that there are still challenges regarding timeliness of notification and complete data reporting in both HMIS and EWAR. As shown in Table 1, among the 40 out of 65 hospitals that responded the survey, it was found that about 90% of the hospitals have surveillance system for 17 diseases under national surveillance . More than 60% of the response hospitals have syndromic surveillance system but only 27.5% have microbiological surveillance system, with especially low percentage in primary referral hospitals with less than 10%. Insert Table 1 here- Diarrhea Dysentery Among the communicable diseases reported in the HMIS, acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea, dysentery and malaria are the highest diseases burden for the communities within the Nargis affected areas. Morbidity of acute diarrhea in 2007 was 571.40 per 100,000 person year and increased up to 755.80 in 2008 due to Cyclone Nargis while remained and was slightly higher than baseline in 2007 as 610.56 in 2009. From the EWAR Weekly Report, diarrhea cases after Nargis incident represented 6.30% of total consultation (4341 cases) in June 2008 (week 23-26) and reduced to 2.04% (3931 cases) in July 2008 (week 27-31). The number of cases was stable to less than 2.00% of total consultation during August to December 2008 (926 cases to 1601 cases). In contrast to normal monthly report of severely acute watery diarrhea (suspected cholera) of less than 5 cases, the suspected cholera was reported the highest during June 2008 (21 cases) and serge again a year after Nargis in March 2009 (15 cases). Th e participants from focus group discussion also revealed that diarrhea diseases, ARI, influenza and pneumonia are prevalence immediately after Cyclone Nargis. One participant mentioned that Villagers suffered mostly diarrhea and common cold. Pneumonia was common especially among children. Dengue and malaria were not common among villagers. (35 years old woman) Despite such increasing disease incidences, mortality rates for diarrhea were reducing during study period, from 0.68 per 100,000 person year in 2007 to 0.40 and 0.28 in 2008 and 2009 respectively. This finding was also corresponding to the high percentage of treatment with ORT among diarrhea children (>95%) in the health facilities and decreasing in severe dehydration among diarrhea children (2.31% in 2007 to Besides diarrhea diseases, dysentery was also one of the leading causes of morbidity among study population; about 350.90 per 100,000 person year was reported in 2007 and slightly increased to 475.40 and 374.39 during 2008 and 2009 respectively. However, mortality and case fatality rate for dysentery was quite low with nearly 0% during study period. Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) ARI has been reported as the major cause of morbidity and mortality among communicable diseases at study townships. Morbidity of ARI in 2007 was 4041.91 per 100,000 person year among under 5 children, highly increased to 599,621 in 2008 due to Cyclone Nargis, and 4661.59 in 2009 which was slightly higher than that of at baseline 2007. For morbidity rate among under 5 years old children, as reported by EWAR showed that there were 7.93% of total consultation (5452 cases) after Nargis in June 2008 (week 23-26), and it dropped to around 5.00% of total consultation (8842 cases and 5131 cases) in July and August 2008 respectively., and subsequently back to normal stable level at less than 3.00% during October (3615 cases) to December 2008 (1991 cases). Interestingly, mortality rate for ARI was lower in Nargis year; that is 4.86, 3.14, and 4.11 per 100,000 person year in 2007, 2008 and 2009 respectively. On the other hand, case fatality rate for ARI has been improving from 0.12% in 2007 to 0.09% in 2009. Malaria and dengue Vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue cases were decreasing significantly in 2009, compared to 2007 and 2008. Malaria morbidity was more 324.44 and 352.51 per 100,000 person year in 2007 and 2008, and then dropped to 227.18 in 2009. Similarly, percent of malaria inpatient among general clinic attendance has been decreasing during study period, 3.17% in 2007 to 1.63% in 2009. In contrast, the mortality percentage among malaria inpatient was increasing, 1.16% in 2007 to 3.31% in 2009. It was shown, however, that malaria morbidity and mortality varied among different townships. From the EWAR report, malaria confirmed cases represented about 0.25% of total consultation (465 cases) in July 2008, then dropped to 0.10% of total consultation (77 to 237 cases) during August to December 2008. Dengue hemorrhagic fever cases are 35.65, 15.76 and 12.40 per 100,000 person year respectively. Confirmed dengue hemorrhagic fever cases were also surge after Nargis during July 2008 which was 273 cases or 0.14% to total consultations. Normally during other period the numbers of cases ranged from 1 to 95, making the rate of approximately less than 0.10% of total consultation. Mortality rate and case fatality rate for dengue hemorrhagic fever were decreasing trend during study period. Tuberculosis, HIV, and other diseases HMIS data also shows that morbidity and mortality rates for tuberculosis had been decreasing in the study area during the study period (67.11, 57.12, and 47.54 per 100,000 person year in 2007 to 2009). Morbidity for sexually transmitted infection (STIs) such as genital ulcer rate (>2 per 100,000 person year) and male urethral discharge rates (>1 per 100,000 person year) had not changed over time and thus it could be assumed that these diseases burden for STIs were the same before and after the Cyclone Nargis. According to EWAR, STIs constituted less than 0.5% of total consultations during June 2008 to May 2009. Interestingly, as part of the surveillance, mortality rates for snake bite had not changed much during 2007 to 2009 but case fatality rates for snake bite and meningitis were quite high in the study area. It was also found that vaccine preventable diseases such as diphtheria, pertusis, neonatal tetanus and measles were not the major causes of morbidity and mortality among the under 5 children during study period. Morbidity for viral hepatitis and typhoid constituted Insert Figure 1 here- Insert Table 2 here- Health services utilization Based on the data in HMIS, the general clinic attendance was 15.13, 23.18 and 21.33% in 2007, 2008 and 2009 respectively; this reveals that general clinic attendance had been increasing significantly since 2008 compared to 2007. However, percentage of average visit per patient attending clinic and referral hospitals did not change much during 2007 to 2009. The data from EWAR which includes statistics from international NGOs indicated that there was a total of 754,852 consultations in 15 townships at Nargis affected area one year after Nargis incident, from June 2008 to May 2009. It was also estimated that the total consultation per person was about 0.3, and there was a total consultation of more than 300,000 to mobile clinics sent by MMOH. As shown in Figure 2, monthly general clinic attendance did increase during May 2008 to July 2008 which was 3 months after Cyclone Nargis, and subsequently attendance slowly decrease start from August 2008. During 2009, monthly attendance appears t o be stable with not much variation in months. In assessing accessibility to health facilities, it was found that there was not significantly change during 2008 to 2010 for the presence of health personnel at health facilities at most of the time. In contrast, drugs availability at health facilities for most of the time has been dramatically increased from 76% to 92%. On the other hand, average number of clinic visit by household head count has decreased from 1.9 in July 2009 to 0.5 in 2010; this falls short when comparing to the international standard target of 2.0-4.0 (as set by Sphere). Insert Table 3 here- Insert Figure 2 here- Prevention and control measures During May 2008 to April 2009, there were a total of 50,000 pamphlets, 2,945 posters, 12,000 booklets about diarrhea diseases and childhood infections distributed to the Nargis affected areas by National Health Programs and other organizations. Interestingly, most of the participants in focus group discussion pointed that they were not interested in health education and went to health education only for receiving relieve items. Health education was given on dengue, malaria, diarrhea diseases, and other communicable diseases. Most of the villagers did not go because they were busy with activities such as building shelter. (57 years old farmer) It is found that rapid diagnostic test and artemesinin combination therapy (ACT) were available in about 70% of rural and sub rural health centers. The national health programs and other organizations distributed a total of 191,718 ACT strip and 282, 532 insecticide long lasting nets (ILLN) during May 2008 to April 2009. Availability of information education and communication (IECs) materials for dengue in health centers was high, with more than two-third of the health center have IECs materials for dengue. On the other hands, IECs material for malaria was present in about 50% of health centers. The vector-borne diseases control program distributed 37,000 pamphlets on vector-borne diseases during May 2008 to April 2009. Particularly in a malaria high endemic area, Ngapudaw, the training program for malaria case management was carried out for 80 hospital staffs. Insecticide residual spray had also been carried out in high endemic area with population coverage of 40,122. Mass larvicidi ng activities were carried out with population coverage of 347,231 in study area for dengue control. It was found that distribution of malaria drug was well covered as one health personnel mentioned that During Cyclone Nargis, a lot of malaria drugs supply was given to my health center but malaria is not prevalence in my area. I was afraid of malaria drugs to be expired. Tuberculosis control program reached the targets of 70% case detection and 85% treatment success rate before Nargis incident since 2007. However, the case detection in the Nargis affected area of 70% was slightly lower than the national average of 77%. It was found that the case detection was quite different among townships, in some townships is lower than 50%. During May 2008 to April 2009, the national health program distributed 2000 pamphlets, 1000 posters and 8800 booklets on education for tuberculosis to the study area. Coverage of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services increased from 2 townships in 2007 to 7 townships in 2009. Performance of PMTCT services such as percentage of treatment taken by HIV (+) pregnant mother (61% in 2007 to 80% in 2009) and percentage of new born HIV (+) have been improved overtime (14% in 2007 to In terms of expanded program immunization (EPI) coverage, it was found that the coverage reached highest in 2008 after Cyclone Nargis; the DPT 3rd dose reached the target of around 90%. However, measles coverage was lower, around 84% during the study period. The EPI IECs materials were presented in around two-third of health facilities in the survey done by UNICEF during December 2008 . One health personnel also confirmed in focus group discussion that immunization services were successful after Cyclone Nargis. The sanitary latrine coverage was increased after Cyclone Nargis in 2009 compared to 2007 both in urban and rural area. The sanitary latrine coverage for population was 72.36 in 2009. However, the sanitary latrine coverage on 2009 was still low in certain rural area, i.e., in Ngapudaw, Labutta and Bogale townships. During May 2008 to April 2009, the total of 316,891 pamphlets and 200,415 posters were distributed to disaster affected area by several organizations. The TCG survey reported that the population receiving improved drinking water has been increasing from 66% in December 2008 to 72% in July 2010, but there was approximately 43% for improved sanitation facilities which was contradict with MMOH surveillance data of 70%. The national health Programs also rehabilitated 4235 ponds, 1028 wells in study area. A total of 236 ponds, 760 shallow wells and over 200 deep tubes well were also constructed in study areas. Participants from focus groups discussion mentioned that sanitary la trine constructions by villagers were associated with the supply of both latrine pan and construction cost. Latrine pans were distributed. However, I could not construct latrine because I had no money. (25 years old man) and In our village, most of the villagers were constructed sanitary latrine because the organization () provided not only gave latrine pans but also provided the construction cost. (18 years old student) Insert Table 3 here- Insert Figure 3 here- Discussion MMOH had established HMIS for routine reporting disease surveillance system and the system has been fully functioning in almost all levels of hospitals. However, the hospitals especially in the secondary referral level should consider strengthen the microbiological surveillance because of weakness in laboratory capacity at such hospitals. Microbiological surveillance is important for early detection of public health emergencies especially communicable diseases outbreak. Currently, the there are only about 20-30% of hospitals that have microbiological surveillance system, compared to 64.5% of hospitals in China in preparation for public health emergencies . World Health Organization recommended that major diseases/syndromes that should be included in emergency surveillance are bloody diarrhea, acute watery diarrhea and suspected cholera, acute respiratory tract infection (ARI), measles, meningitis, HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and neonatal tetanus . Setting up of EWAR with participation of national and international organizations working in public health emergency response is best practice for public health emergency management and should be maintained in future public health emergency management. It was found in this study that surveillance system is also compatible with the diseases impact in the affected area but there are rooms to improvement for areas such as recording and calculation of actual proportion such as timeliness for surveillance and sensitivity for outbreak detection . However, it is also recommended the necessity of setting up the database for logistic and drugs supply for health sect or with involvement of other organizations working in public health emergencies . The national surveillance data coincided with the EWAR reports suggested that morbidity of communicable diseases highly increased for about 3 months after Cyclone Nargis. Diarrhea diseases, ARI and malaria have been reported as major communicable diseases, in this area. The diseases increased significantly during the months after Cyclone Nargis which was similar to other disaster incidents elsewhere in which the diseases that could cause major morbidity and mortality in emergencies including ARI, diarrheal diseases, measles and, malaria in endemic area, epidemic meningococcal disease, dengue, tuberculosis, tetanus, pneumonia, relapsing fever, yellow fever, and typhus [6,16]. With early diagnosis and prompt treatment with trained staff by using standard protocols at all health facilities, the management of communicable diseases would help solve the situation . Thus, it might be due to the good predisposition of drugs for common diseases in risk areas and the strengthened preparatio n for disaster management by both governmental programs, international organizations and NGOs. The morbidity and mortality of common communicable diseases seem to be in better situations after the Nargis incident. In 2009, acute diarrhea diseases in the affected area have been compatible with the national average of morbidity and mortality of 667 and 0.65 per 100,000 person year respectively. Case fatality rate for diarrhea diseases such as typhoid, dysentery etc. was less than 1% and it achieved the standards set by communicable diseases management in public health emergencies . This finding coincided with the observable fact of high percentage of treatment with ORT among diarrhea children in the health facilities, decreasing in severe dehydration among diarrhea children, and effective case management for diarrhea diseases as well as early diagnosis. The morbidity and mortality of ARI which was the most communicable disease burden revealed increasing trends in the study. Both ARI and diarrhea are still a public health burden and require effective prevention and control programs in this coastal area. In contrast, mortality and morbidity for vector-borne diseases, particularly malaria and dengue, reveal decreasing trends during 2007 to 2009, except high peak in months of Nargis incident. Malaria morbidity and mortality rates in study area were lower compared to national rate of 1075 and 1.84 per 100,000 person year respectively. Overall, major vector-borne diseases control in the study area has been functioning well. However, it was noted by healthcare providers that supply of drugs should be based on risk assessment of malaria in that area. The situation of other diseases also shows improving trends. Tuberculosis program reached the targets of case detection and treatment success rates but varied in different townships. More efforts are needed in townships that did not reached the national targets. Despite the fact that morbidity rates of sexual transmitted diseases did not change much, but the PMTCT coverage was improved. It was noted by healthcare providers though that PMTCT services should be secured at all townships by national health programs with financial and technical support. This involves many stakeholders that manage PMTCT services in the country. Immunization plus program with nutrition services has shown effective practice for public health emergencies management and it should be maintained or even improved not only for future emergency incidents. It was suggested that if measles vaccination coverage rates are lower than 90%, it should be given priority to prevent an outbreak of measles in emergency situations [5, 6]. Measles immunization coverage in the study area was at 84% but it was still considered not reaching the target of 95% coverage set up by Sphere . On contrary, DPT 3rd dose coverage was about 90% reaching the target of national health program but was again less than the IASC indicators of 95% coverage . In all, it was found that all immunizations coverage is slightly lower after Nargis incident in 2009 compared to 2008. Sustainability of immunization services should be considered as part of the routine national health program with involvement of donor agencies and township health department. Community awareness program should be strengthened because community awareness on early treatment and proper case management are important in reducing the impact of communicable diseases . It is found that almost all of the organizations distributed several IEC materials regarding communicable diseases; however, most of the participants in the focus group discussion reported not interested in health education programs. The evaluation of effectiveness of health education programs should be then carried out to assess future public health emergency management. Utilization rate of health services such as general clinic attendance has been improving during the study period but it is still quite low in consideration with the target achievement of 50% target. Clinic attendance rates of some townships were less than 15% while TCG survey also reported that health services utilizations did not reach the Sphere target of 4 visits/person/year. It is necessary to research on factors influencing the utilization of health services. Sanitary latrine coverage in townships at the affected areas was still slightly lower than the national sanitary latrine coverage of around 80%. It was also found that distribution of water and sanitation items were quite varied among communities. Water and sanitation program should be strengthened in townships which are below the national average by cooperation among stakeholders. Conclusion Overall, health sectors have achieved the Sphere targets of management of communicable diseases in the coastal townships. The excess mortality and morbidity of the communicable diseases was reduced in the Nargis affected area by means of health services given by Department of Health, MMOH and other several organizations including NGOs and international NGOs. However, communicable diseases are still the high burden in these townships and health sectors including all stakeholders should strengthen the health services. Lesson learned in terms of strengths and weakness for communicable diseases prevention control during Cyclone Nargis could be applied for setting up policy and plan for preparation and management of public health emergency in Myanmar. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors contributions NWM, JK, PS were involved in the conceptualization and design of the study. NWM prepared research instruments and other study logistics, collected data in Myanmar. SLN and TTM assisted in study management and data support in Myanmar. KC, PS, AKM, PP provided conceptual framework and technical support for the study. NWM and JK performed analyses and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Acknowledgements We
Monday, August 19, 2019
Franklin Delone Roosevelt Franklin was born on January 30, 1882 just south of the village of Hyde Park, New York. Franklin came form a very wealthy Family, his father owned Springwood it was the Roosevelt country estate. His father name is James and his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Sara. Franklin did not attend public school his mother tough him how to read and write before he was six. He was born for success he also had tutors whom tough him Latin, French, and German along with the usual. Every second of his day was scheduled Ã¢â¬â up at seven, breakfast at eight, lesson with his governess form nine to noon, an hour for play, then lunch and more lessons until four, then he was allowed to be on his own until supper. He spent much of his time around grown-ups so he matured quicker than the other kids so he did not quit fit in with the other kids so he did not have that many friends. Every thing they did was first class if they went on a trip it would be on their private rail car etc. Most rich boys like Franklin go away to boarding school when they turned twelve, but Franklin stayed home under his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s wing until he tuned fourteen. In 1896, he entered Gordon, an exclusive Massachusetts prep school; usually rich kids would go away to an Ivy League Co llage. At Gordon, they were expected to live by strict rules, show the proper school spirit, and act like gentlemen. After he graduated from Gordon, he attended Harvard, after he graduated from Harvard he goes into politics. He would travel around to little towns and meet every one and ask them stuff like what could be changed and what and what he could he could do to help them. After that, he would give a speech to the
The Spiritual QuestÃ in On the RoadÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A disillusioned youth roams the country without truly establishing himself in one of the many cities he falls in love with. In doing so, he manages with the thought or presence of his best friend. What is he searching for? While journeying on the road, Sal Paradise is not searching for a home, a job, or a wife. Instead, he longs for a mental utopia offered by Dean Moriarty. This object of his brotherly love grew up in the streets of America. Through the hardships of continuously being shuffled from city to city, Dean has encompassed what is and what is not important in life. While driving back to Testament in the '49 Hudson, Dean propositions Sal through an appeal to emotion. In passing on his philosophy, Dean eloquently states, "Everything is fine, God exists, we know time" (Kerouac 120). After the war, America achieved the status of economic success through the provisions of the assembly line in industries and manual labor in civil services. The 1950's became an evolution from skilled craftsmanship to mindless mechanical work in factories. The goals in life included working in a fixed position, having a home, and providing for the wife and kids. However, with the threat of the Cold War looming over their heads, the youth of this generation grew disenchanted with the so-called American Dream. They realized life is ephemeral and that there is more to life than punching in a time-card. The concept of individuality was more important than conformity. It became a "culture acting out the true Self and true spontaneous desire" (McGeory 21). As an author and member of the younger generation, Jack Kerouac embodies this notion of estrangement throughout his novel, On the Road. Allen... ...notion that their quest is a spiritual one" (Goldstein 61). Once we reach the ideal inner peace is when we are truly able to understand the band of friendship that surrounds us. If we are able to maintain this philosophy, no trouble can exist to deteriorate our well-being. We will be able to enjoy life more and discover what our fears are hiding. Works Cited Birkerts, Sven. "On the Road to Nowhere: Kerouac Re-read and Regretted." Harper's Magazine July 1989: 75. Ginsberg, Allen and Gregory Corso. "Ten Angry Men." Esquire. June 1986: 261. Goldstein, Norma Walrath. "Kerouac's On the Road." The Explicator Fall 1991: 61. Kerouac, Jack. On the Road. New York: Penguin Books. 1955. McGeory, Heather R. "On the Road to Upheaval." New York Times 12 June 1993, late ed.:21. Will, George F. "Daddy, Who Was Jack Kerouac?" Newsweek. 4 July 1988: 64. Ã Jack KerouacÃ¢â¬â¢s On The Road - The Spiritual Quest, the Search for Self a The Spiritual QuestÃ in On the RoadÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A disillusioned youth roams the country without truly establishing himself in one of the many cities he falls in love with. In doing so, he manages with the thought or presence of his best friend. What is he searching for? While journeying on the road, Sal Paradise is not searching for a home, a job, or a wife. Instead, he longs for a mental utopia offered by Dean Moriarty. This object of his brotherly love grew up in the streets of America. Through the hardships of continuously being shuffled from city to city, Dean has encompassed what is and what is not important in life. While driving back to Testament in the '49 Hudson, Dean propositions Sal through an appeal to emotion. In passing on his philosophy, Dean eloquently states, "Everything is fine, God exists, we know time" (Kerouac 120). After the war, America achieved the status of economic success through the provisions of the assembly line in industries and manual labor in civil services. The 1950's became an evolution from skilled craftsmanship to mindless mechanical work in factories. The goals in life included working in a fixed position, having a home, and providing for the wife and kids. However, with the threat of the Cold War looming over their heads, the youth of this generation grew disenchanted with the so-called American Dream. They realized life is ephemeral and that there is more to life than punching in a time-card. The concept of individuality was more important than conformity. It became a "culture acting out the true Self and true spontaneous desire" (McGeory 21). As an author and member of the younger generation, Jack Kerouac embodies this notion of estrangement throughout his novel, On the Road. Allen... ...notion that their quest is a spiritual one" (Goldstein 61). Once we reach the ideal inner peace is when we are truly able to understand the band of friendship that surrounds us. If we are able to maintain this philosophy, no trouble can exist to deteriorate our well-being. We will be able to enjoy life more and discover what our fears are hiding. Works Cited Birkerts, Sven. "On the Road to Nowhere: Kerouac Re-read and Regretted." Harper's Magazine July 1989: 75. Ginsberg, Allen and Gregory Corso. "Ten Angry Men." Esquire. June 1986: 261. Goldstein, Norma Walrath. "Kerouac's On the Road." The Explicator Fall 1991: 61. Kerouac, Jack. On the Road. New York: Penguin Books. 1955. McGeory, Heather R. "On the Road to Upheaval." New York Times 12 June 1993, late ed.:21. Will, George F. "Daddy, Who Was Jack Kerouac?" Newsweek. 4 July 1988: 64. Ã